After the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful. The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked (Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology) by Z. H. Archibald,1998. Additionally, he may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day. Despite their initial reluctance, the Successors seem to have later deliberately naturalized themselves to their different regions, presumably in order to help maintain control of the population. What's the difference between Koolaburra by UGG and UGG?  The city of Pergamon also had a large library and became a major center of book production. It can be argued that some of the changes across the Macedonian Empire after Alexander's conquests and during the rule of the Diadochi would have occurred without the influence of Greek rule. When he was driven out of Greece by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the latter laid siege to Athens and razed the city. The Kingdom of Pontus was a Hellenistic kingdom on the southern coast of the Black Sea. Soon afterwards the Greco-Bactrian kingdom seems to have expanded, possibly taking advantage of the defeat of the Parthian king Arsaces II by Antiochus. A whole class of petty officials, tax farmers, clerks and overseers made this possible. Some areas of the conquered world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Celts who settled in Galatia came through Thrace under the leadership of Leotarios and Leonnorios c. 270 BC. Agathocles extended his power throughout most of the Greek cities in Sicily, fought a long war with the Carthaginians, at one point invading Tunisia in 310 BC and defeating a Carthaginian army there. Under his auspices the Peace of Naupactus (217 BC) brought the latest war between Macedon and the Greek leagues (the Social War of 220–217 BC) to an end, and at this time he controlled all of Greece except Athens, Rhodes and Pergamum. hellenistic influence What do you mean when you say Hellenistic? What influences did Hellenistic culture have on Buddhist imagery. 20,500 records, last systematically updated in July 2012 (Apollonius of Rhodes updated August 2019) . Hellenistic culture was at its height of world influence in the Hellenistic period.  Meanwhile, in mainland Greece, the Aetolian League, which had sided with Rome against Macedon, now grew to resent the Roman presence in Greece. Ariarathes V also waged war with Rome against Aristonicus, a claimant to the throne of Pergamon, and their forces were annihilated in 130 BC. PUBLICATIONS: - Catalogue "Kunst der Antike 6", Freiburg im Breisgau, 1985, N. Catholicism is the more moderate of the two, having retained obedience to the Church and its traditions as well as requiring certain works for salvation. Sparta's bid for supremacy was crushed at the Battle of Sellasia (222 BC) by the Achaean league and Macedon, who restored the power of the ephors.  He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis (again with remarkable accuracy). There was a temple to Serapis, the Greco-Egyptian god. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele and a syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India. Further ruin was brought to Greece by the Roman civil wars, which were partly fought in Greece. Other sources include Justin's (2nd century AD) epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrian's Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Under Ariarathes IV, Cappadocia came into relations with Rome, first as a foe espousing the cause of Antiochus the Great, then as an ally against Perseus of Macedon and finally in a war against the Seleucids. Epirus was an ally of Macedon during the reigns of Philip II and Alexander. Soon, however, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered and assumed full control. He had been a student of Callimachus and later became chief librarian (prostates) of the library of Alexandria. For geographical distribution of Greek speakers, see. In 146 BC, the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate. Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. Hellenism introduced and spread the Greek language, art, culture, political ideas, and philosophy across the Mediterranean and Middle East. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor).  He also wrote a massive catalog of the holdings of the library of Alexandria, the famous Pinakes. F.W. The Egyptian countryside was directly administered by this royal bureaucracy. Undoubtedly Greek influence did spread through the Hellenistic realms, but to what extent, and whether this was a deliberate policy or mere cultural diffusion, have been hotly debated. In 198 BC, during the Second Macedonian War Philip was decisively defeated at Cynoscephalae by the Roman proconsul Titus Quinctius Flamininus and Macedon lost all its territories in Greece proper. Greek literature would have a dominant effect on the development of the Latin literature of the Romans. Attalus I (241–197 BC), was a staunch ally of Rome against Philip V of Macedon during the first and second Macedonian Wars. After the defeat of Anthony and his lover, the last Ptolemaic monarch, Cleopatra VII, at the Battle of Actium, Augustus invaded Egypt and took it as his own personal fiefdom. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt though Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods until the Muslim conquest. He and his successors also fought a series of wars with the Seleucids, known as the Syrian wars, over the region of Coele-Syria. The rebels were supported by Lysimachus, the satrap of Thrace and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt. A Hellenistic Bibliography Welcome to the Hellenistic Bibliography – a bibliography on post-classical Greek poetry and its influence The pages on this site were compiled from a database containing ca. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. The major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. 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